Sedimentary Layers in Columbus Crater
Sedimentary Layers in Columbus Crater
PSP_010281_1510  Science Theme: Sedimentary/Layering Processes
This image covers a portion of the northeast inner wall of the 100-kilometer diameter Columbus Crater, located in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars.

Layered sedimentary rocks are found on the crater walls and floor, and may have been deposited by water or by wind. These rocks have subsequently been eroded to expose their successive layers in cross-section. The near-infrared spectrometer CRISM has revealed that these layers contain various hydrated minerals.

Visible here is a north-facing slope (roughly 250 meters across) exposing finely layered sedimentary rock. In this enhanced color view, layers with a dark blue appearance may be intrinsically darker, or may have a texture that more effectively collects dark sand particles, than adjacent layers with a brighter appearance.

Written by: James Wray  (17 December 2008)
Acquisition date
05 October 2008

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
256.0 km (159.1 miles)

Original image scale range
25.6 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects ~77 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
25 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
70°, with the Sun about 20° above the horizon

Solar longitude
137.3°, Northern Summer

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  38.0°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (810MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (367MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (320MB)
non-map           (319MB)

IRB color
map projected  (74MB)
non-map           (341MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (178MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (181MB)

RGB color
non map           (325MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.