Confluence of Valley and Crater
Confluence of Valley and Crater
PSP_009669_1500  Science Theme: Fluvial Processes
This image shows the southeast rim of a large degraded crater where a valley breaches the crater rim. The valley itself, no longer pristine, is difficult to locate in the image.

However, it appears to be in the center near the right of the crater rim. It is possible that this valley transported water into the crater forming a lake in the ancient past.

The scene is peppered with craters of various sizes and states of degradation, indicating that the surface is not young. A few craters are young enough to still have raised rims. One of these, located on the floor of the larger crater, has distinct raised ejecta radiating out from it.

The crater also has dunes on its floor, indicating that aeolian (wind) processes have modified it since it formed.

Written by: Kelly Kolb  (5 November 2008)
Acquisition date
18 August 2008

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
255.2 km (158.6 miles)

Original image scale range
51.1 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects ~153 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
50 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
74°, with the Sun about 16° above the horizon

Solar longitude
114.6°, Northern Summer

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  45.1°
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Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
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All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.