Sand and Rock in Meridiani Planum
Sand and Rock in Meridiani Planum
PSP_006148_1820  Science Theme: Landscape Evolution
This observation shows rock outcrops in Meridiani Planum, in the area of the landing site of the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity. The image is centered on a cluster of buttes, steep-sided erosional remnants protruding from a level plain. There are two broad categories of material in the image: light-toned sedimentary rock and dark-toned material, which is likely wind-blown sand.

The light-toned material was probably deposited as sediments transported by wind or water; Opportunity found outcrops of aeolian (wind-deposited) sandstone, and this may also be the case in the area of this image. The dark areas show ripples formed by material (probably grains of sand eroded from basaltic lava) blowing in the wind.

In the RGB enhanced-color image (which is not what the colors would like to the naked eye), the dark material is relatively blue, while the light rock ranges from pale blue to tan. The pale blue color in some cases may be due to small amounts of basaltic sand overlying relatively tan rock outcrops, but could also be a real difference due to varying composition or cementation of the rock.

The presence of buttes like those at the image center suggests rock layers of varying resistance. Relatively hard, resistant rock on top can armor a patch of weaker material below; this is commonly observed on Earth. Relations like this are found at many sites in the Colorado Plateau (the Four Corners area of the United States), which has been used as an analogue for this region on Mars.

Written by: Colin Dundas  (12 December 2007)
Acquisition date
18 November 2007

Local Mars time

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Spacecraft altitude
272.6 km (169.4 miles)

Original image scale range
27.3 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects ~82 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
25 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle

Phase angle

Solar incidence angle
35°, with the Sun about 55° above the horizon

Solar longitude
349.2°, Northern Winter

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  354.7°
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Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
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NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.