Crater Dunes Revisited
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
Crater Dunes Revisited
PSP_010854_1325  Science Theme: Seasonal Processes


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In the winter, these dunes in an unnamed crater east of Proctor Crater are covered with seasonal carbon dioxide frost (dry ice). In the spring, the frost gradually evaporates but lingers in protected regions. In this color image bright ice deposits in sheltered areas highlight the ripples on the dunes.

These dunes were imaged during the first year of MRO's mission. Images taken now in the second Martian spring can be compared to the previous year to study interannual variability.

Written by: Candy Hansen   (18 February 2009)

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Acquisition date
19 November 2008

Local Mars time:

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Range to target site
254.5 km (159.0 miles)

Original image scale range
50.9 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects ~153 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
50 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle:

Phase angle:

Solar incidence angle
77°, with the Sun about 13° above the horizon

Solar longitude
160.1°, Northern Summer

North azimuth:

Sub-solar azimuth:
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (436MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (197MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (230MB)
non-map           (274MB)

IRB color
map projected  (89MB)
non-map           (201MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (362MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (359MB)

RGB color
non map           (177MB)
B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona. The image data were processed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s ISIS3 software.