A Giant Cave on a Giant Volcano
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
A Giant Cave on a Giant Volcano
ESP_023531_1840  Science Theme: Impact Processes


1080p (MP4)
720p (MP4)
Listen to the text


800  1024
1152  1280
1440  1600
1920  2048
2560  2880


PDF, 11 x 17 in


Pavonis Mons is a giant shield volcano similar to (although larger than) those on the Big Island of Hawaii. These volcanoes are mostly made of stacks of overlapping lava flows. These images and digital terrain model (DTM) show a collapse feature on Pavonis Mons. The walls of this conical pit are steep (about as steep as it is possible to get before loose material rolls downhill). The material that used to be here has drained downward through the opening seen in the center into a subterranean void and formed a debris pile. The top of this debris pile can be seen through the opening about 28 meters (92 feet) further down.

From this DTM we can measure how much material drained out of the conical pit and so estimate how tall the debris pile is. These estimates are enormous: the debris pile itself is at least 62 meters (203 feet) tall. Given that the top of this pile is 28 meters below the rim of the central hole, this tells us that the empty cavity was once 90 meters (295 feet) deep, prior to the collapse and infilling! Only a handful of caves on the Earth reach or exceed this size and they all formed by having liquid water dissolve underground limestone, neither of which are readily available on Mars.

Sometimes the tops of lava flows freeze on the surface even while the lava continues to move underground in a lava tube. If these tubes drain, then lava tube caves can be left behind. Sections of the roof may later collapse, creating roof openings, and these openings can be imaged from orbit. Could this be a view into a lava tube? If so, it would dwarf all lava tubes on the Earth! It's also possible that this collapse is above some more substantial part of the volcano's internal plumbing system and collapses deep with the mountain are allowing voids to open up near the surface. It would no doubt be very exciting for future astronauts to explore this mammoth cave and figure out its origin.

View the DTM details page for this observation.

Written by: Shane Byrne  (2 July 2014)

This is a stereo pair with ESP_023953_1840.
twitter  •  facebook  •  google+  •  tumblr
Acquisition date
04 August 2011

Local Mars time:

Latitude (centered)

Longitude (East)

Range to target site
263.0 km (164.4 miles)

Original image scale range
26.3 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects ~79 cm across are resolved

Map projected scale
25 cm/pixel and North is up

Map projection

Emission angle:

Phase angle:

Solar incidence angle
34°, with the Sun about 56° above the horizon

Solar longitude
339.1°, Northern Winter

For non-map projected images
North azimuth:  97°
Sub-solar azimuth:  343.9°
Black and white
map projected  non-map

IRB color
map projected  non-map

Merged IRB
map projected

Merged RGB
map projected

RGB color
non-map projected

Black and white
map-projected   (219MB)

IRB color
map-projected   (103MB)

Black and white
map-projected  (104MB)
non-map           (118MB)

IRB color
map projected  (25MB)
non-map           (90MB)

Merged IRB
map projected  (67MB)

Merged RGB
map-projected  (65MB)

RGB color
non map           (87MB)
Map-projected, reduced-resolution
Full resolution JP2 download
Anaglyph details page

DTM details page

B&W label
Color label
Merged IRB label
Merged RGB label
EDR products

IRB: infrared-red-blue
RGB: red-green-blue
About color products (PDF)

Black & white is 5 km across; enhanced color about 1 km
For scale, use JPEG/JP2 black & white map-projected images

All of the images produced by HiRISE and accessible on this site are within the public domain: there are no restrictions on their usage by anyone in the public, including news or science organizations. We do ask for a credit line where possible:
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona.