Layered Outcrops on Crater Floor
NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

Layered Outcrops on Crater Floor
ESP_011631_1515  Science Theme: Sedimentary/Layering Processes
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This image shows part of the floor of an impact crater on the northern rim of the giant Hellas Basin.

Hellas includes the lowest elevations on Mars, and may have once held lakes or seas; layered rock outcrops occur around much of the edge of the basin. At this site, a large impact crater (about 90 kilometers across) was partly filled by layered rocks. These rocks on the crater floor are now eroding and forming strange pits.

Here, the layers are mostly exposed on a steep slope which cuts across much of the image. On this slope, they crop out as rocky stripes, some continuous and others not. The material between the stripes is mostly covered by debris, but some areas of exposed rock are visible. The slope is capped by a thick, continuous layer that armors it against erosion; once this cap is gone, the lower material is removed rapidly, forming the steep slope. At the base of this slope, rocks on the floor of the pit appear bright and heavily fragmented by cracks known as joints.

The variation in rock types suggests that the rocks here were deposited by multiple processes or in different environments. Sites like this may preserve a record of conditions on early Mars.

Written by: Colin Dundas   (18 February 2009)

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Acquisition date:18 January 2009 Local Mars time: 3:55 PM
Latitude (centered):-28.438° Longitude (East):57.087°
Range to target site:256.9 km (160.6 miles)Original image scale range:from 25.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 51.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning)
Map projected scale:25 cm/pixel and North is upMap projection:Equirectangular
Emission angle:0.3° Phase angle:60.1°
Solar incidence angle:60°, with the Sun about 30° above the horizon Solar longitude:193.8°, Northern Autumn
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North azimuth:97° Sub-solar azimuth:15.4°
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North azimuth:270°Sub solar azimuth:189.9°

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For information about NASA and agency programs on the Web, visit: http://www.nasa.gov. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The HiRISE camera was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation and is operated by the University of Arizona. The image data were processed using the U.S. Geological Survey’s ISIS3 software.